About the Journal

The University of Arusha Academic Journal (UoAAJ) is a multi-disciplinary journal published by the University of Arusha (UoA), Arusha, Tanzania. It is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that publishes full length research, short communication, review, perspective and editorial in the fields of Theology and Religion, Education, Business Studies, Natural and Medical Sciences, and other related disciplines.

Focus and Scope

The principal focus of the UoAAJ is to publish scholarly work on a wide range of development issues and share knowledge with a wide audience. All published articles are available in print and electronic versions. All journals are available for free download online. The UoAAJ publishes scholarly articles in a wide range of academic fields, including Theology and Religion, Education, Social Sciences, Economics, the Humanities, Management, Computer and Information Communication Technology (ICT), Business, Natural, and Medical Sciences.

The University of Arusha Academic Journal (UoAAJ) is a peer-reviewed journal whose main aim is to disseminate information resulting from the research work of political, Social-economic, Natural Scientists and other related areas. The journal is produced in English but in future, abstracts will be produced in both English and Kiswahili. The UoAAJ welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and academic excellence from both local and international contributors. 

Publication Frequency

The journal is published biannually, that is, two times a year (end of June and December) and will increase its frequency of publication to quarterly based on demand and gained experience. In some cases, arrangements will be made for special issues.


General Instruction to Authors

  • The UoAAJ considers publication of original articles that have been submitted only to this journal and not articles that have been published already. In addition, the manuscript must not be under consideration for publication or in press in another journal;
  • The manuscript will be checked for plagiarism;
  • The manuscript must be proof-read by a competent English language expert before submission. Evidence for the proof reading must accompany the submission; and
  • Manuscripts should be typed one point five (1.5)-space on Microsoft Word, with page numbers at the bottom center and using Times New Romans font of 12 points.

Types of Manuscript Accepted

Original Research Articles: These should be based on new and carefully confirmed findings. Experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail for others to verify the work. The length of original articles should be between four to five thousand words (4,000-5,000) (excluding abstract, references, and tables). Tables, Figures, or other illustrations should not exceed six.

Reviews: Submissions of reviews and perspectives covering contemporary and topical issues are welcome and encouraged. Reviews should be concise and no longer than six thousand words (6,000) (excluding abstract, references, and tables). Reviews must consist of critical analyses of the subjects giving a current and balanced view of all the issues. The message carried in reviews should be clear and of significance.

Structure of the Original Research Manuscripts

Manuscripts for Research articles submitted to the UoAAJ should be divided into the following sections:

Title: should appear on the first page: be brief, specific, and focused on the problem addressed by the research. The Title page should include the authors’ full names and affiliations, the name of the corresponding author along with phone and e-mail contact information. Present addresses of authors should appear on the title page. 

Abstract: should be brief but informative. It should state the scope and objectives of the study, methods employed, major findings, conclusion, and recommendations. The Abstract should not exceed 250 words in length written in one paragraph. Complete sentences, active verbs, and the third person should be used, and should be written using the past tense. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. No sub-heading and literature should be cited in the abstract.

Key Words: Following the abstract, provide about 5 to 7 keywordsthat clearly explain the manuscript theme and purpose. The first letter of each keyword should be in lower case, be separated by a comma, and avoid repeating words in the title.

Abbreviations: A list of non-standard abbreviations should be added. In general, non-standard abbreviations should be used only when the full term is very long and used often. Each abbreviation should be spelled out and introduced in parentheses the first time it is used in the text. Only recommended SI units should be used.

Introduction: Should provide the background information, a clear statement of the problem and significance of the research carried out, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution.

Materials and methods: This should be comprehensive enough to allow repetition of the study. New procedures employed should be described in detail. Previously published procedures should be cited, and important modifications of published procedures should be described briefly. Sub-headings such as study design, study area, type of population, sample size and sampling technique, data collecting tools, research questions, and data analysis and validation methods can be used. Methods in general use need not be described in detail.

Results: The results should be presented in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and figures. The main or most important findings must be presented first.They should be presented with clarity and precision. Only the most important observations must summarized in the text. Only tables and figures needed to explain the argument of the paper should be included. Graphs should be used as an alternative to tables with many entries. The results should be written in the past tense when describing findings. Previously published findings should be written in the present tense. Separate reporting of data by demographic variables, such as age and sex, is recommended as it facilitates the pooling of data for subgroups across studies. Results should involve analysis, but without referring to the literature. Discussion, speculation, and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the Results but should be put into the Discussion section.

Discussion: Should begin by briefly summarizing the main findings, and followed by an exploration of possible mechanisms or explanations for the findings. The findings should be interpreted in view of the results obtained in past studies on the same or similar topic. New and important aspects of the study should be highlighted. The results and discussion sections can include subheadings, and when appropriate, both sections can also be combined.

Conclusions and recommendations: This should comeat the end of the paper. Here the author should briefly state what emanates from the study.

Acknowledgments: Those who contributed to the work but do not qualify as authors should be listed in the Acknowledgments with a description of their contributions. Funding support should also be appropriately acknowledged. A disclaimer statement that the views expressed in the submitted article are those of the author(s) and not an official position of their institution or funder should be included. This section should be presented after the conclusions and recommendations.

Tables: This should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. Tables are to be typed single-spaced throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, and supplied with a heading and a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. The details of the methods used in the experiments should preferably be described in the legend instead of in the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text.

Figure legends: This should be typed in numerical order on a separate sheet. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high-resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG, or PowerPoint before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file. Tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word. Use Arabic numerals to designate figures and upper case letters for their parts. Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.


All publications cited in the text should follow the APA style as presented in a list of References as shown in the example below. Citation in the text should refer to the author’s name and year of publication. For example: “Kasanga (2006) argues that….”, “This is in agreement with the previous report (Kadio, 2006)”. If the authors are more than two, the name of the first author should be used followed by “et al.,”. In the list of references, however, the names of the first author and all co-authors should be mentioned.

Use semi-colons to separate multiple references and list in an alphabetical and not a chronological order. Examples:

One author: Kakoko (1992) or (Kakoko, 1992);

Two authors: Kadiva and Kagonji (1992) or (Kadiva and Kagonji, 1992);

Three or more authors: Vavae et al. (1992) or (Vavae et al., 1992);

More than one identical reference: (Nyika, 1992a or Nyika, 1992b); and

Multiple references: (Nakadori, 1992; Naseri, 1995; Mdori, 2010).

The following illustrates some common referencing formats.

Journal Article:

Mikalista, S. M. (2010). Gender-specific constraints affecting technology use and household food security in Western Province Kenya. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development. Vol. 10, No. 4 April 2010.


Mugenda, O. and Mugenda, A. (1999). Research methods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. African Center for Technology Studies (ACTS) Press, Nairobi. 233 pp.

Article or chapter in a book:

Trottier, B. (1987). Women in aquaculture production in West Africa. In Nash. C.E., Engle, C.R. and Crosetti, D. (Eds.). Women in Aquaculture. FAO ADCP/REP/87/28, pp. 17-28.

Dissertation or Thesis:

Hague, M. (1992). The economics and feasibility of Aquaculture in Northern Tanzania. B.A. Dissertation, University of Stirling, Scotland. 40 pp.

From the Website:

FAO (1997). Participation in practice. Lessons from the FAO people’s participation programme. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/t9550e/t9550e00.htm (Retrieved on 2nd December 2020).


Manuscripts must be submitted by one of the authors of the manuscript, and should not be submitted by anyone on their behalf. Submitted manuscripts will be assessed from an editorial point of view, at first, and if found appropriate for publication, they will enter the peer-review process. To ensure unbiased review, reviewers will receive the blinded version of the manuscript. The corresponding author will then be informed of the evaluation along with the Editorial remarks. Authors of accepted articles will be asked to work on remarks and send back the manuscript to the editorial team to finalize publication. The journal discourages the submission of more than one article dealing with related aspects of the same study.

Please read the instructions to the authors before submitting the manuscript. The manuscript files should be given the last name of the first author.

Submit manuscripts as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office editorial@uoa.ac.tz and editorial-assistant@uoa.ac.tz  and copy to wetengerekkj1@yahoo.com. A manuscript number will be mailed to the corresponding author as soon as possible after receipt of the manuscript.



Manuscripts will be accepted for consideration on the condition that they are submitted exclusively to The University of Arusha Academic Journal. This restriction does not apply to abstracts on press reports published in connection with scientific meetings.

It is a requirement that all authors must give signed consent to publication. They should provide their names, qualifications, designations, current address including fax and e-mail numbers for purposes of correspondence. A covering letter signed by all authors should identify the corresponding author responsible for the manuscript. Credit for authorship requires substantial contributions to: (a) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data; (b) the drafting of the article or critical revision for important intellectual content and (c) final approval of the version to be published.


Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) and that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.


Authors must get the permission of copyright owners for the use of quotations, illustrations, tables and other materials that have been taken from previously published works. The letters of permission for the use of the copyrighted materials must accompany the submitted manuscript. The original source(s) of such materials must be clearly indicated in the figure legend or as a footnote to a table.

Copyright Notice

Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. However, the author(s) of the published articles will remain responsible for the credibility of the content.

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.

Managing and Reviewing of Manuscripts

All activities of the Journal are under the guidance of an Editorial Team together with an Editorial Board of renowned experts.

In-House/Internal Editorial Team

  1. Prof. Patrick Manu (Education and Management);
  2. Prof. Pearson Mnkeni (Natural Science);
  3. Dr. Elifelet Azaliwa  (Social Sciences & Education);
  4. Dr. Ndalawa Masanja (Business);
  5. Dr. Msafiri Allen (Business);
  6. Dr. Baraka Ngussa (Theology & Education);
  7. Dr. Mussa Muneja (Theology);
  8. Dr. David Mpwani (Theology);
  9. Dr. Onesto Ilomo  (Education);
  10. Dr. Joshua Kuboja (Language & Education); and
  11. Dr. Simon Arego (Education).

Editor in Chief

Prof. Kitojo Wetengere

Associate Editor

Dr. Eliada Tieng’o

Editorial Board

  1. Prof. Patrick Manu (Education)
  2. Prof. Pearson Mnkeni (Natural Science)
  3. Prof. Kitojo Wetengere (Economics)
  4. Prof. Elifas Bisanda (Natural Science)
  5. Prof. Malago (Natural Science)

Address all submissions to:

The Editor in Chief,

The University of Arusha Academic Journal (UoAAJ),

University of Arusha (UoA),

P.O Box 7,

Asa River, Arusha.

Tel: +255735487985


        +255689092674 (Whatsap)

Fax : +255272553626

E-mail: editorial@uoa.ac.tz; wetengerekj1@yahoo.com


After the manuscript has been accepted by the internal editorial team, the next review process involves sending the manuscripts to at least two experts for review. Thereafter, any acceptable manuscripts may also be sent to the English editor and/or statistical adviser.

The manuscript is a confidential document and therefore should not be discussed with anybody else. Any communication with the author of the manuscript must be done through the Journal Editorial office.

The reviewers provide advice to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes the final decision, together with members of the Editorial Board. The Editor-in-Chief normally passes on comments to the author.

As a practice, the author and the reviewer are not known to each other unless otherwise requested by either party. In any case, such disclosure and communication are facilitated by the Editor-in-Chief of the University of Arusha Academic Journal.

Even if a manuscript is not accepted, constructive comments that might help to improve the paper, or in preparing a fresh manuscript will be passed on to the author. For this reason, reviewers are requested to give detailed comments (with references, where appropriate) that will help the Editor-in-Chief to make a decision on the manuscript and the authors to improve it. The reviewer should send detailed comments separately and make her/his recommendations and any confidential comments to the Editor-in-Chief on a covering letter by electronic means. Corrections can also be made on the actual text itself and highlighted for the benefit of the author and the editor.

The broad aspects that the reviewers are requested to comment on include:

Criteria for evaluation

The important criteria are:


  • Are the topic and language appropriate for the scope and readership of the Journal?


  • Assess whether the manuscript is novel and adds significant information.
  • Advise whether the title, points of significance and abstract are appropriate and representative of the content.
  • Assess whether the literature review is up to date and whether all relevant work has been included and acknowledged.
  • Scrutinise the methods and results in terms of consistency, interpretability and reproducibility.
  • Identify gaps that could or should be filled to enhance the interpretability and strength of the findings and/or insights.
  • Contest conclusions not justified by the results or arguments presented.
  • Advise whether the number of references is appropriate and their selection judicious.


Assess and, if applicable, suggest improvements, regarding:

  • style and clarity of language
  • focus
  • length, with respect to conciseness and avoidance of repetition
  • number, format and relevance of figures and tables
  • structure, including relevance and division of supplementary material

Scientific conduct

  • Assess the proper citation and referencing of previously published studies, including the critical issue of the originality of the manuscript.
  • Explain any judgements and offer support for any claim that work has been previously reported.
  • Identify any obvious conflicts of interest.
  • Confirm that authors have provided an explicit statement of approval by an institutional ethics committee for original studies that involve human subjects and non-human vertebrates.

Final recommendation and comments

Please provide clear, consistent and useful recommendations to the Associate Editor. One or two comments only are not sufficient to explain to the Associate Editor or the authors the grounds on which the final recommendation is made to accept, decline or request revisions. The comments provided for both the author(s) and Associate Editor should support the recommendation.

The final decision lies with the Associate Editor who will evaluate at least two reports before making the decision.

Recommendations (and final decision) may be any one of the following:

  • Accept: Reviewers have noted that only minor editorial changes are needed. After review by the Associate Editor and correction the manuscript will be published.
  • Request Revisions: Minor revisions that require the author/s’ attention. The revisions will be reviewed by the Associate Editor before being a final decision.
  • Resubmit for Review: Many manuscripts can be improved by major revisions that need to be scrutinised by peer reviewers. These revisions should be generally restricted to rewriting, clarifying, performing further analyses and providing more detail. This recommendation should not be employed to soften or delay what will inevitably be declined.
  • Decline: Reasons to decline include: major methodological or interpretational problems; lack of novelty; and inappropriateness for the Journal’s scope or readership. Major weaknesses are unlikely to be fixable and should warrant the manuscript being declined.

Confidential comments, if applicable, should be communicated to the Associate Editor through an online discussion.

Reviewers may be asked to reassess a revised manuscript.

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